By Daniel M. Hausman
Causation is asymmetrical in lots of alternative ways. factors precede results; factors cite factors now not results. brokers use factors to govern their results; they do not use results to control their reasons. results of a typical reason are correlated; motives of a standard impression will not be. This publication via one of many preeminent philosophers of technological know-how writing this day deals the main finished account on hand of causal asymmetries. it's a significant ebook for philosophers of technological know-how that would additionally end up insightful to economists and statisticians.
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Causation is asymmetrical in lots of other ways. explanations precede results; reasons cite reasons now not results. brokers use reasons to govern their results; they do not use results to control their motives. results of a typical reason are correlated; factors of a standard impact usually are not. This booklet by means of one of many preeminent philosophers of technology writing this day deals the main complete account to be had of causal asymmetries.
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Extra info for Causal Asymmetries
One can understand that the famous paradox of the "renewal of the masterpieces" is proper and normal for axiological history, and for it alone. The distinction of these three elements (evaluation, axiological history, pure history) is one of the most unquestionable merits of Max Weber; we are going to develop it here as best we can (Weber's texts are not absolutely clear: Essais sur la theorie de la science, trans. Freund, pp. z6o-264, 434, 452-453; compare the section on \Veber in chapter IV of this volume).
Is it the science of human societies? Is it the science of man in society? But what historian, or what sociologist, is capable of separating what is individual from what is collective, or even of attaching a meaning to these words? The distinction between what is historic and what is not is nonetheless made immediately and as if by instinct. In order to see how approximate these attempts at a definition of history are, multiplied and successively crossed out, without ever having the impression that one has "got it," it is enough to seek to state them precisely.
The idea of a pure history of value-activities, not very clear where literature is concerned, is on the other hand familiar to archaeologists and to the historians of science. Roman art has left countless sculptures, a certain number of paintings, and a very few masterpieces; archaeologists publish all they find, good or hadtheir finds bear witness to the artistic life and the evolution of styles. " In truth, since the early 1950s the pure history of literature and the arts has developed a great deal, under the name of sociology of art (it is known that "sociology" is frequently a synonym for social history or non-eventworthy history); the epoch-making book was that of Antal on the historical background of Florentine painting, however questionable his methods and conclusions may be, as is generally the case with a pioneering book.
Causal Asymmetries by Daniel M. Hausman