By John J. McKetta Jr
Written by means of greater than forty international well known specialists within the box, this reference offers info on plant layout, major chemical reactions, and processing operations in business use - providing shortcut calculation equipment at any place attainable.
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Extra resources for Chemical Processing Handbook
The statistics presented do not directly apply to the rest of the world; however, these statistics are useful because they demonstrate the utilization of natural gas in a country where, until recently, natural gas was considered to be plentiful. Also, the utilization of natural gas as a chemical feed is more developed in the United States than in any other country in the world. Natural Gas Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons ranging from methane to pentane or heavier. These hydrocarbons are mostly paraffins but do include a small amount of naphthenes.
Most nitric acid is produced in the concentration range of 54 to 60% which is acceptable for the production of ammonium nitrate. However, nitric acid of 93% concentration must be employed for producing explosives and isocyanates. In order to produce the stronger acids, some method such as dehydrating with sulfuric acid must be used. Acrylonitrile. Most acrylonitrile in the United States is produced by the reaction of ammonia with propylene via the Sohio process; this method has replaced the previous one of catalytically reacting acetylene with hydrogen cyanides.
Ethane and LPG are preferred feeds for chemical companies that are not fully integrated to market the by-products produced with heavier feeds. The major trend in recent years in the United States has been toward the use of heavier feeds such as naphtha or gas oil because of the unavailability of ethane and LPG. This trend has increased the proportion of ethylene that has been manufactured by oil companies. This is mainly because the oil companies have better access to the available feed and because they are also in a better position to sell the various by-products.
Chemical Processing Handbook by John J. McKetta Jr