By Gilbert F Froment; Juray De Wilde; Kenneth B Bischoff
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Additional resources for Chemical reactor analysis and design
It is as if the intermediate is at a steady state: dC Q / dt 0 . This differential equation is the condition to be satisfied before the reaction scheme A → Q → S may be reduced to A → S, which is simpler and contains one rate coefficient less. 1-3) to be a useful approximation of the complete scheme, the induction time should be very short, meaning that the concentration of the intermediate must be very small. 2-6) it is seen how the maximum in the curve CQ versus t moves towards t = 0 as k2>>k1.
3-2 illustrate this. Autocatalytic reactions can occur in homogeneous catalytic and enzyme processes, although usually with different specific kinetics. 4 Kinetic Analysis With kinetics assumed to be of the mass action type, two main characteristics remain to be determined by the kinetic analysis: 1) the rate coefficient, k; 2) the reaction order, global a’ + b’ or partial a’ with respect to A, b’ with respect to B. The order of a reaction is preferably determined from experimental data. 1-1). When the latter is only an "overall" equation for a process that really consists of several steps, the order cannot be predicted on the basis of this equation.
With complex processes like thermal cracking of a mixture of hydrocarbons to produce ethylene, use is often made of the “yield” of a component Q. ). Selectivities or yields depend upon the type of reactor in which the reaction is carried out. The selection and design of a reactor optimizing the selectivity for a desired product is a rewarding task for the engineer and will be illustrated in Chapter 10. 1-1 Parallel first order reactions. Concentration-time profiles. 2-1. If experimental data on CA, CQ and CS versus time are available, the assumed orders can be checked and the values of k1 and k2 can be obtained by fitting the experimental curves.
Chemical reactor analysis and design by Gilbert F Froment; Juray De Wilde; Kenneth B Bischoff