By Authors: L. S. Kothari and S. P. Tewari
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The binding energy of a nucleon (neutron or proton) inside the nucleus is 7-8 MeV: Hence, these electrons having a kinetic energy of the order of 50 MeV cannot be held inside the nucleus. Then how are electrons emitted from inside a nucleus? They are emitted from inside a nucleus because of nuclear transformation of neutron, where a neutron disintegrates into a proton, an electron and an antineutrino. Thus unlike protons and electrons, neutrons are also unstable particles. It appears very reasonable to suppose that all protons are identical, means, all protons 'look alike' (if we could use this word for them) and have identical properties.
However, for the known elements, the number of isotopes that exists is usually small, mostly two or three. This implies that for a stable nucleus to form, the ratio of neutron number to proton number cannot take any arbitrary value. If the neutron number is more or less than what is required fot stability, the isotope becomes unstable and decays by radioactive dftcay. If the number of neutrons is more than what is required for stability of the micleus, it emits a beta - negative particle and if the neutron number is less, it emits a beta - positive particle.
Surprisingly there are only four kinds of interactions between these particles. We already know about the gravitational and the electromagnetic interactions. The other two are: 'strong' or nuclear interaction and 'weak' interaction. There is a fifth force which acts between quarks, the constituents of the nucleons (name for protons and neutrons taken together). Its agent is gluon. Gravitational Interaction. For elementary particles, this is the weakest of the forces. It is proportional to the product of the masses of the interacting bodies, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Inside Atoms by Authors: L. S. Kothari and S. P. Tewari