By Professor Dr.-Ing. Hugo Fastl, Professor Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Zwicker (auth.)
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Extra info for Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models
Although the process is modelled in electrical terms, the influence of the outer haircells on the inner haircells could be mechanical, electromechanical, electrical, biochemical, or all or any of the above in nature. A single inner haircell may be influenced by many outer haircells in its surroundings (an effect indicated by the resistors pointing in and out laterally). However, at high levels, the amplifiers (outer haircells) are saturated and the adequate stimulus operates almost exclusively on the inner haircells.
It acts like an open pipe with a length of about 2 cm corresponding to a quarter of the wavelength of frequencies near 4 kHz. It is the outer ear canal that is responsible for the high sensitivity of our hearing organ in this frequency range, indicated by the dip of threshold in quiet around 4kHz. This high sensitivity however, is also the reason for high susceptibility to damage in the region around 4 kHz. 2 Middle Ear The sound affecting the outer ear consists of oscillations of air particles.
An average of available results shows a decreasing delay time for increasing emission frequency. 20 displays this relationship, which indicates that for low frequencies near 500 Hz a delay time of about 20 ms is measured, whereas emissions with high frequency content are produced with a much shorter delay, about 4 ms at 4 kHz. It should be mentioned , however, that many emissions show a time function that is not concentrated within a narrow time window. Long lasting emissions with partly modulated time functions often occur, and some are not completely decayed even after a delay of 80 ms.
Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models by Professor Dr.-Ing. Hugo Fastl, Professor Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Zwicker (auth.)