By Jonathan Sutton
This publication can be in each epistemologist's "Must learn" pile. Sutton defends an unorthodox account of justified trust in accordance with which a trust is justified iff that trust quantities to wisdom. He defends (successfully, i might say) the view from a number of internalist criticisms and does a greater task incorporating actual internalist insights into his remedy of justified trust than competing externalist bills be able to do (Here, i've got in brain quite a few sorts of reliabilism or right functionalism). there is no denying that his account of justification, his remedy of testimony, or way to the Preface Paradox are unorthodox, yet i believe that even those that cannot carry themselves to simply accept the conclusions of the e-book will admit that his paintings serves as a far wanted corrective in that it scrutinizes a few assumptions principally taken without any consideration within the present literature.
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Additional info for Without Justification (Bradford Books)
Moreover, in epistemic situations as in moral situations, we should expect that the violations of some will encourage the violations of others, leading to localized epistemic scandals to which the protagonists are oblivious. 5 Justiﬁcation as Reasonableness, or The Bit Where You Take It Back, Part I It has been noted that ‘justiﬁed’ is rarely, if ever, applied to beliefs in everyday speech, the term being more commonly applied to actions, and that ‘reasonable’ is a term that is used of beliefs in much the way that philosophers use the term ‘justiﬁed’.
Here is perhaps the worst case. We can have justiﬁed beliefs about the future, which on my view amounts to the fact that we can know many things about the future. You believe that you will meet me at the airport tomorrow and act on this belief in typical ways—you tell me that you will meet me there, and so on. But you drop dead this evening. I will not hold you to your obligation to act, to pick me up at the airport. But you did violate your epistemic obligations, on my view. You did not know that you would pick me up at the airport (although you would have known in more fortunate circumstances), and so, according to my view, you should not have believed that you would so act.
Similar examples are easy to construct. There is almost no end to the crazy conclusions at which one might routinely arrive whose craziness it is practically impossible for one to recognize because it is inconceivable for people in one’s social circumstances to believe anything different. Another problem that externalists worry about is what Sosa (1991b) calls ‘the new evil-demon problem’. On many versions of reliabilism, a thinker globally deceived by an evil demon or who is a brain in a vat will have very few beliefs that are justiﬁed since they are not arrived at by the relevant kind of reliable process.
Without Justification (Bradford Books) by Jonathan Sutton